Air conditioning, heating, and air conditioning systems are the basic technology of vehicular and indoor environmental comfort. Its purpose is to provide acceptable indoor air quality and thermal comfort to a wide variety of applications. It can be used in industrial, commercial, institutional or residential settings to provide comfort, environmental reliability and cost efficiency. The components include heat pump, condenser, refrigerant, expansion valve, and compressor.
Air conditioning and cooling are an expensive investment and should only be used for specific applications where the benefits outweigh the cost. Heat pumps can be used in air conditioning systems for cooling and heating in large buildings such as hospitals, warehousing facilities, commercial office buildings, and military bases. In these applications air conditioning systems are cooled and heated water in the form of a water-filled envelope surrounding the interior of the building. This type of application has special requirements and must be handled by qualified technicians.
Air conditioners provide controlled temperature inside enclosed spaces. The cooling effect can also be controlled. They are commonly used for indoor air conditioning but some specialty models are also available for outdoor air conditioning. They are normally powered by electricity or gas mains. ACs are available in different capacities.
There are different types of air conditioning units: window, central air conditioning unit (chill), portable room air conditioning unit, and floor standing air conditioning unit. A window air conditioning unit contains a window that opens to let fresh air in and a system for collecting chilled air. In a chiller air conditioning unit cold air from outside is passed through a heating coil to a room, where it is chilled. Portable room air conditioning units are used for single rooms or areas of a large building.
ACs use a set of ductwork to move air conditioning through the house or business at a constant temperature. Most ACs are equipped with a fan on the front of the unit to help circulate the cool air. ACs are powered by electricity or gas mains. ACs that use evaporator coil cooling require special installation and maintenance.
The air flow into the air conditioner is altered to provide a cooling effect. The most common form of air conditioning includes a closed air flow system that has one or more evaporator coils along with a fixed air source. A third type called a positive displacement air conditioner has a negative ionization system that draws in negative ions from the surrounding air. Negative ions are believed to stimulate the production of white blood cells, which are needed for a healthy immune system. Some air conditioners have been designed to operate in a self-cleaning mode. This means that they maintain a constant temperature even when there is little or no air flow.